She Figures 2021: The gender gap in education is narrowing but women remain under-represented in research and innovation in Greece

The latest data on gender equality in education, research and innovation in Europe are presented in the publication 'She Figures 2021'. Data for Greece is provided by the National Documentation Centre (EKT)

The latest data on gender equality in education, research and innovation in Europe are presented in the publication 'She Figures 2021'. Since 2003, the flagship report -'She Figures' - has been published every three years by the European Commission. The results for Greece are collected by the National Documentation Centre (EKT), which is also the statistical representative of the country.

The publication follows the 'chronological journey' of women from graduating from doctoral education to participation in the labour market and decision-making roles, while exploring differences in the working conditions of women and men in research and innovation.

According to the report, on average, the percentage of women students at undergraduate and postgraduate level (54%) and graduates (59%) exceeds that of men and there is an almost balanced gender representation at doctoral level (48%). However, there are still differences between fields of study. For example, women still represent less than a quarter (22%) of PhD holders in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), while they represent at least 60% in the health and welfare sectors and education (60%). and 67% respectively) in the EU.

In Greece, women represent 22.8% of the self-employed professionals in the fields of Science & Engineering and ICT. This share is lower than the European average (24.9%), and Greece ranks 12th among 24 EU member states and associated countries where similar data were available.The representation of women in the governing bodies of higher education and research in Greece is very low, with only 19.64% of the board members and 11.43% of the leaders being women. Both indicators are below the EU average (31.1% for members and 24.5% for leaders).

Similarly, women are under-represented among inventors (in patent applications). In the period 2015-2018, the ratio of female inventors to men at European level was 0.12. The index suggests that for every 100 patent applications filed by men, there are only 12 applications from women. The ratio of female inventors to men in Greece was marginally higher than at European level, with the ratio being 0.16 for the period 2015-2018

According to a special survey conducted in 2020 in preparation for the 'She Figures 2021'publication, 73.9% of Higher Education Institutions and 36.1% of Research Organisations in Greece mentioned measures and actions in support of gender equality on their websites. It is worth noting, however, that Greece does not formally impose legislation on gender equality in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and Research Centres of the country, according to the Plan for Gender Equality (ERAC SWG GRI, 2021) . The Gender Equality Plan (GEP) is now an obligation for those seeking to participate in the major funding programme from the European Commission's Horizon Europe.

Overall, 'She Figures 2021' demonstrates the need for further action to improve and reduce the gender gap in decision-making and leadership in research and innovation.

EKT's contribution to gender equality issues

The National Documentation Centre (EKT), actively supports, through a series of activities and actions, the goal of equal participation of women in the research and innovation system. At the statistical level, as the National Authority of the Hellenic Statistical System, it monitors and records on an annual basis the position of women in Research and Development activities.

In this context, EKT is also the statistical representative of the country for the EU's flagship report 'She Figures', contributing to all new editions, including the most recent edition (2021), with data on the participation of women in research, development and innovation at national level., with information from ΕC, EKT