After a decade, the 2018 government appropriations for Research & Development (R&D) in Greece rose to pre-crisis levels (GBARD index). An increase was noted in private investment in R&D in Greece, as recorded by the final R&D expenditure indicators for 2017. At the same time, 2017 saw a rise in the employment of R&D personnel.
These are the main conclusions from the figures published and sent by the National Documentation Centre (EKT) to Eurostat on 06.30.2019, as required by European Regulations. The publication of indicators is part of the regular production of official statistics on Research, Development and Innovation in Greece, carried out by EKT as an agent and a national authority of the Greek Statistical System, in co-operation with the Hellenic Statistical Authority.
According to statistics for state funding in Greece for the period 2008-2018 (https://metrics.ekt.gr/publications/340), government appropriations for R&D in 2018 amounted to 1,141.62 million euro (GBARD index), the highest amount recorded for the 10-year period 2008-2018.
The GBARD indicator (Government Appropriations for research and Development) lists the appropriations of government budgets for R&D and is used internationally to measure priorities and targeting of R&D policies. Since 2012 onwards, the National Documentation Centre has annually produced the GBARD indicator for Greece by collecting data from the central government and 13 regional administrations and submitting it to Eurostat. Data on state R&D appropriations included are from both components of the state budget: regular budget and Public Investment Programme (national and co-financed).
Analysis of statistical data shows the significant fluctuations of the index during the period 2008-2018, resulting from both the impact of the financial constraints on the regular budget and also the significant contribution of structural programmes under the Public Investment Programme.
In 2018, the regular budget increased compared with 2017 and 2016, while the progress of implementation of the NSRF 2014-2020 was accompanied by increased appropriations under the Public Investment Programme, thus increasing the total GBARD index. The percentage index of GDP of the country amounted to 0.62%, approaching the average of the EE28 (0.64%) and putting Greece in 11th place among the EU28 Member States
Private investment in R&D in Greece also showed an increase. According to the final R&D expenditure statistics for 2017, total expenditure on research and development activities in Greece amounted to 2038,43 million euros (https://metrics.ekt.gr/publications/341). For the second consecutive year, the business sector made the largest contribution to national R&D expenditure, amounting to 994.04 million. euros, or nearly 50% of total expenditure of the country.
This was followed by the higher education sector (576.85 million. euro), the government sector (451.14 million.euro) and private non-profit institutions (16.4 million. euros). The overall R&D Intensity indicator, which represents R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP, was 1.13%, putting Greece in 18th place among the EU Member States.
The significant increase in R&D expenditure in 2017 resulted in an increase in R&D employment. Compared to 2016, the Full Time Equivalent (FTE), which represents full-time positions, increased by about 14% in total R&D personnel and 19% for researchers. The total personnel employed in R&D in 2017 amounted to 47,584.9 full-time positions (FTEs) and researchers in FTE 35,000.2. The largest increase was recorded in the business sector.
The statistics and indicators for Research, Development and Innovation in Greece, which are produced and published by EKT, are sent regularly to Eurostat and the OECD. Data analysis and production of relevant indicators are published in printed and electronic EKT publications and can be found on the revamped website http://metrics.ekt.gr. The modern design, clear classification and new functionalities, highlights the site’s rich content, which is constantly enriched, updated and renewed, informing policy makers, researchers, journalists and the general public with quality indicators.